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Collection Development Policy

As written and revised by: Teri Koch, Andrew Welch, Mark Stumme, Pam Brennan, Lori Brdicko, Laura Krossner

Adopted by: Cowles Library Faculty Council (8/27/2013)

Table of Contents

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  1. Introduction
    1. Library Mission Statement
    2. University Mission Statement
    3. Statement of Purpose
    4. Intellectual Freedom & Diversity
  2. Budget Allocation / Conspectus / Supplemental Funds
    1. Budget Allocation
    2. Conspectus
    3. Supplemental Gift Funds
  3. Curricular Analysis
    1. General Collection Statement: Cowles Library Information Resources
    2. Physical Collections
    3. Electronic Resources
    4. Interlibrary Loan
    5. Items Cowles Does Not Actively Collect
    6. Collection Level Definitions
  4. Selection Factors
  5. Library Collections
    1. Books (Monographs)
      1. Print
      2. E-Books
    2. Government Documents
    3. Media
    4. Serials
      1. Policies pertaining to different types of serials subscriptions
        1. Periodicals
        2. Electronic/Online Journals
        3. Microforms
        4. Newspapers
        5. Monographic series
    5. Electronic Collections
      1. Purpose, Priorities and Goals
      2. Broad Categories
        1. Purchased or licensed material
        2. Digitized material
        3. Links and pointers
        4. Open Access content
      3. Selection Factors
        1. Content
        2. Format
        3. Practical Issues
        4. Strategic Considerations
        5. Accessibility
        6. Integration
        7. Cost
        8. Archiving
    6. Special Collections
  6. Collection Maintenance
    1. Binding
    2. Conservation & Preservation
    3. Replacements
    4. Usage Statistics
    5. Deselection
      1. Books
      2. Periodicals
      3. Serials
      4. Media
      5. Government Documents
      6. Electronic Resources
  7. Special Considerations
    1. Approval Plans & Standing Orders
    2. Gifts
    3. Browsing Materials
    4. Reserve Materials/Electronic Reserve Materials
    5. Theses/Dissertations
    6. Patron-Driven Acquisitions
  8. Library Liaison Program
    1. Overview & Goals of Liaison Program
    2. Librarian Liaison Guidelines
      1. Duties of the Library Liaison
      2. Specific responsibilities of the Library Liaison
    3. Departmental (Discipline-Based) Liaison Guidelines
      1. Duties of the Departmental Liaison
      2. Specific responsibilities of the Departmental Liaison
  9. Appendix
    1. ACRL Standards for Libraries in Higher Education
    2. LibQUAL
    3. Procedures for Ordering a Book or Media
    4. Procedures for Ordering a Journal (print and electronic) and Electronic Databases
    5. Digital Archives
    6. Policy regarding duplication of materials held at Opperman Law Library
    7. Policy for retention of duplicate print and microform journal holdings if a title is owned in a permanent digital format
    8. Policy for removal of duplicate print and microform journal holdings if a title is owned in a permanent digital format
    9. Criteria for acquiring and retaining periodicals
    10. Cancellation of serial/journal
    11. Evaluation elements considered for electronic/online materials

  1. Introduction
    1. Library Mission Statement
      To support the educational goals of Drake University by providing services, collections, technology, and learning opportunities that make it possible for faculty and students to successfully access and use information. In fulfilling its mission, the Library works in partnership with faculty and other members of the Drake community. Primary emphasis is placed on materials and services that expand upon and support the curriculum, and that support faculty teaching. Cowles Library Strategic Plan

    2. University Mission Statement
      Drake’s mission is to provide an exceptional learning environment that prepares students for meaningful personal lives, professional accomplishments, and responsible global citizenship. The Drake experience is distinguished by collaborative learning among students, faculty, and staff and by the integration of the liberal arts and sciences with professional preparation.

    3. Statement of Purpose
      The Cowles Library Collection Development Policy is intended to guide the selection, evaluation, and de-selection of print and electronic materials for the collection, whether by purchase, gift, license, or subscription. The purpose of this policy is to provide a written statement of the Library’s objectives in building its collection, to communicate these objectives and guidelines to all members of the Drake community, and to guide selectors when making individual decisions. As a statement of University Library policy, it is also used in determining the allocation of funds and as a source to identify areas of strength and weakness in our collection.

    4. Intellectual Freedom & Diversity
      The selection of items to be added to the collection (physical and electronic) is a shared responsibility of the library and teaching faculty. That activity is guided by Drake University’s commitment to maintaining the highest standards of academic freedom in the pursuit of teaching, research and the creation of knowledge. Academic Charter (See Section IV, p.3). The library seeks to serve as a free marketplace of ideas, providing equal access to all points of view on all subjects of potential use or interest to its users. Neither physical materials nor access to electronic information is excluded from the collection because of frankness of language or controversial content, or because of the political, moral, religious, sexual, social, economic, or scientific views expressed, or because of the race, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, religion, or political affiliations of the author. Attempted censorship of library materials is in direct opposition to the American Library Association (ALA) Library Bill of Rights. Furthermore, attempted censorship is vigorously resisted by the library as inconsistent with its responsibility to foster freedom of thought and inquiry. The Library recognizes its unique role in helping promote diversity by acquiring resources, both electronic and print, that strengthen the University’s efforts to promote learning and education in the areas of diversity and multicultural studies (see Cowles Library Diversity Plan). The library’s collection must reflect this commitment by supporting research and study that enhances knowledge of our pluralistic society.

  2. Budget Allocation / Conspectus / Supplemental Funds
    1. Budget Allocation
      The acquisition budget is prepared annually. The Head of Collection Development prepares a budget recommendation based on input from both the Library and teaching faculty. Particular attention is paid to sustaining the strength of the collection in support of current programs, and on identifying new areas of study or areas that need enhancement. Based on this input, the Dean of the Library works with the Provost to develop a University budget recommendation. This allocation is normally announced in the spring of each year and goes into effect on June 1. The materials budget is divided between nonrecurring (Books, Media) and recurring (Serials, Journals, Electronic Database subscriptions) expenditures. For budgetary purposes, the primary differentiation is between one-time and continuing expenditures.

      Each College/School (and in the case of the College of Arts & Sciences, each Department) receives a budget allocation assigned from the Library’s overall materials budget with which to order books or monographs to help build the Library collection. Note: only those Colleges/Departments which have active Library Liaisons (primarily consisting of attending the bi-annual Liaison meetings and responding to library messages/queries) will receive a departmental funding allocation. (See “IX. Library Liaison Program.”)

      Submitted orders should meet the criteria established in this document. Each college or department is expected to appoint a Liaison to work with the Library. Cowles Library will designate a librarian to work with each college or department. The Departmental Liaison assigned by either the Dean of the College or the Chair of the Department should administer this allocation and work closely with his/her colleagues to manage it. The Departmental Liaison will receive a statement at the beginning of each month during the school year from the Acquisitions Associate informing them of their departmental “balance” as of the last working day of the prior month. If there are any unspent monies in the annual departmental allocation they will revert to the Library each spring (usually late February) so that the Library faculty may use the funds to purchase materials. First preference will be given to the subject areas from which the reversions came.

      Each College/School/Department also has funds allocated by the library towards serial/journal subscriptions. This budget does not normally increase from year to year, except for an annual inflationary increase. If the library receives sufficient additional funds from the University to cover inflation, serials cuts are not normally necessary. In those years in which the library does not receive enough additional funding to cover inflation, Librarian Faculty Liaisons and Departmental Liaisons must work together to achieve the necessary budget figure. (See “V. Library Collections. D. Serials” for more information regarding Serials and Serials cancellations.) Through their Departmental Liaisons, faculty in each College/School/Department have the opportunity to review the list of serials/journals assigned to their College or Department each Spring, and to make recommendations for changes and new titles. (See “Appendix #4: Procedures for ordering a journal (print and electronic) and electronic databases” for more information.)

      The Library also allocates funds to support subscriptions to Electronic databases. The growth of this portion of the budget typically outpaces any increase in the Library’s materials budget each year. (See “VI. Library Collections. E. Electronic Collections” for more information, and also Appendix #4: Procedures for ordering a journal (print and electronic) and electronic databases.”)

    2. Conspectus
      The Library regularly revises the Library Conspectus, which is a strategy for setting monographic acquisitions and purchasing guidelines for academic disciplines. This process entails relating the number of titles published each year, broken down by the Library of Congress Classification system, to Drake’s curriculum. Groups of call numbers are assigned to each academic discipline and the percentages of the volumes being published are weighted by the assigned level of the program (as assigned in “III. Curricular Analysis” section). This process produces a total monographic guideline figure or a monographic purchasing target for each discipline. The Conspectus approach provides acquisition targets based on the number of books published in any given year, and it links to the Collection Development Policy based upon assigned weights.
    3. Supplemental Gift Funds
      The Library has a limited amount of supplemental money regularly available to it. Generally referred to as “gift money,” most of it consists of the proceeds of bequests from which the library receives the income. The funds are limited, and most have restrictions. The Major Supplemental Gift Funds currently are:

      • Griffing – designated for purchase of books related to diverse cultures and world problems.
      • Herriott – designated for purchase of books on history and the humanities.
      • Lynner – designated for purchase of books on American literature.
      • Becker – designated for purchase of books on rural churches.
      • Koch – designated for purchase of books on insurance.
      • Hyman – designated for purchase of books of fiction, drama and literary criticism.
  3. Curricular Analysis
    1. General Collection Statement: Cowles Library Information Resources
      In order to serve the information needs of Drake University, Cowles Library provides collections of materials, access to electronic resources, and temporary use of materials from other libraries through interlibrary loan. The following policies provide guidelines for these elements.

    2. Physical Collections
      Cowles Library receives and maintains collections of books, periodicals, newspapers and music scores in paper formats. Cowles Library receives and maintains collections of periodicals and newspapers in microfilm format for which we have appropriate reading equipment. Cowles Library receives and maintains multimedia resources for which we have appropriate equipment. All such media are cataloged and available for use in Cowles Library or for checkout where allowed. Cowles Library does not purchase or maintain collections of commercial software, art pieces, maps, or slides. If such materials are supplemental to a book, they are treated as accompanying material and shelved with the book.

    3. Electronic Resources
      Cowles Library makes electronic materials available to Drake University faculty, staff, and students including remote access whenever possible. All contracts and licensing agreements provide access to the whole Drake community whenever possible and are administered by the Library.

    4. Interlibrary Loan
      All Drake faculty, staff, and currently enrolled students have access to this service. Materials (books, microfilm, DVDs, VHS tapes, and journal articles) not owned by Cowles Library are borrowed from other libraries to use.

      Cowles Library also tries to supply requested articles to patrons through document supply services or purchasing article/issue directly from the publisher.

      Textbooks are not borrowed through Interlibrary Loan for students because limited time periods do not allow semester usage.

      (See Also the Cowles Library Interlibrary Loan web page.)

    5. Items Cowles Does Not Actively Collect
      The Library does not actively collect materials primarily intended to support specific class instruction or for individual study or research including: textbooks, lab manuals, workbooks, examinations, tutorials, demonstrations, exercises, course descriptions, reading lists, or forms. Materials of this nature may be placed on reserve at the library either in physical or electronic format but are not intended to be added to the permanent collection.

      The Library does not collect multiple print copies of the same title (placing personal copies on reserve is encouraged as an alternative). Exception: The Library will usually purchase two copies of a book by a Drake author, with one circulating or on reserve as necessary and the second copy being deposited in special collections.

      The Library does not actively collect materials for use by the visually impaired such as Braille or large-type editions or audio transcriptions. There are, however, facilities on campus to do limited conversion of some library materials to make them accessible. (See Drake University Disability Services.)

      The Library does not actively collect general catalogs of academic institutions, commercial organizations, art galleries, etc.

      The Library does not actively collect materials proselytizing religious beliefs, philosophical and psychological practices, self-improvement methods, or political movements and organizations.

      The Library does not actively collect materials promoting commercial products, companies or public personalities.

      Exceptions to the above may be made if an instructional or research purpose can be demonstrated, and if the purchase is approved by the Library.

    6. Collection Level Definitions
      The following definitions are taken from the Library of Congress. They are intended to provide a guideline for the level of resources the library strives to provide for different subject areas as they relate to the Drake curriculum, in terms of both physical collections and access to electronic resources.

      1. Minimal level – A subject area that is out of scope for the University’s mission and in which few selections are made. No majors are offered at the University.
      2. Basic level – A highly selective collection that serves to introduce and define a subject. It includes major dictionaries and encyclopedias, selected editions of important works, etc. No majors are offered at the University.
      3. Undergraduate study level – A collection that is adequate to support undergraduate study. A collection that is adequate to maintain knowledge of a subject required for limited or generalized purposes of less than research intensity. It includes a wide range of basic books, complete collections of the works of more important writers, a selection of representative journals, and reference tools in print or electronic formats, along with relevant online databases. Majors are offered in the subject.
      4. Graduate/advanced study level – A collection that will support master’s level graduate work including; materials containing research reports, new findings, scientific results and other information useful to studying for a master’s level graduate degree. It should also include all important reference works and a wide selection of books and journals in print or electronic formats, and subject specific databases.
      5. Research level – A collection that includes the major published source materials required for dissertation level research. Including materials containing research reporting, new findings, scientific experimental results, and other information useful to researchers. It is intended to include all important reference works and a wide selection of specialized books, as well as an extensive collection of journals and major indexing services in the field in print or electronic formats, and more specialized databases.
  4. Selection Factors
    The following are the primary factors that the Library considers in making acquisition decisions for materials in our collection:

    • relevance of material to the Drake curriculum
    • critical review or quality of the material content
    • listing in standard bibliographies and guides
    • reputation or authoritativeness of the publisher
    • reputation or authoritativeness of the author
    • calculated or estimated price
    • potential for use or known need
    • strength or weakness of the collection in particular areas; we will collect materials in greater quantity and specificity in selected subject areas based upon the definition of our collection levels as well as endeavoring to collect in areas designated as being important but lacking
    • usefulness with respect to other materials in the collection, including the representation of all sides of controversial issues
    • duplication of other similar subject coverage including materials available as part of databases or e-book collections
    • currency of the material, especially as it relates to the physical and social sciences
    • lasting value of the material for an academic collection
    • ability to obtain the material through other means, such as electronic access, document delivery, ILL or other nearby libraries with more appropriate resources in particular subject areas
    • preference will be given to electronic materials that can be accessed remotely whenever possible and practical

  5. Library Collections
    Cowles Library and Drake University value exposure to disciplinary classics and key texts. The Library strives to preserve this key scholarship in order to provide a pathway through a particular discipline. At the same time, the library recognizes that not all disciplines have the same needs regarding print and electronic content; whenever possible, the library will support individual disciplinary curricular needs by purchasing resources in the most appropriate format. As more resources become available in electronic format, usage by discipline will be studied to determine appropriate formats for future selection considerations. While electronic books are becoming increasingly popular, compatibility issues, reader preferences, availability limitations, pricing models and perpetual access issues present sufficient challenges that the library must continue to acquire print materials into the foreseeable future in order to provide the Drake community continued access to key scholarship.

    Digital library materials are vital in the modern era of shared access to electronic information. While much information is available on the Internet, Cowles Library plays a unique role by providing quality scholarly information that would not be available otherwise, and by defending the widest possible access to information in all formats.

    1. Books (Monographs)
      1. Print
        Cowles Library continues to purchase and maintain a collection of books in print, while recognizing that the preference for and usage of the print format may vary by discipline. The primary format for a one-time purchase (that is, non-subscription) is the book format. Books/Monographs are generally collected in clothbound editions except when items are available only in paperback editions. The exception is when the price differential between the clothbound edition and the paperback edition is deemed to be excessive. In this case the paperback edition will be purchased and sent to the bindery if deemed necessary.

        The Library maintains a Reference book collection that includes material such as general and specialized encyclopedias, dictionaries, directories, almanacs, atlases and topical bibliographies. Most of the index and abstracting sources in print have been replaced by similar electronic versions. Generally, whenever a Reference source is available in both print and electronic formats, the Library will opt for the electronic version, unless the cost for such is significantly higher than the print version or if the electronic version is not available to the library via perpetual access.

      2. E-Books
        Cowles Library has an ever expanding number of E-books provided by different vendors that all appear in the catalog. Their usage levels may vary depending upon the license agreements with each vendor. The Library will contract with vendors for online digital rights to selected current academic and trade books. When available, necessary (based on the opinion of the Library or Faculty Liaison), and fiscally feasible, works to which Cowles can procure permanent (perpetual) access rights will be preferred to works which Cowles does not own but is merely leasing. The Library needs to be cognizant of and concerned with the special needs of this medium, such as specialized software that each product may require. Also, the Library needs to be aware of the varying licensing arrangements and how this may affect usage (that is, “single” vs. “unlimited” simultaneous users for each title). See also Appendix 11: Evaluation elements considered for electronic/online materials.

    2. Government Documents
      Cowles Library is a partial depository for federal government publications. We receive the same core materials that all depository libraries receive. The remainder of our government collection is determined by the profile created by the librarian responsible for documents, whose decisions on which series numbers we receive generally follow the same criteria applied to the selection of our books and serials (see Section IV: Selection Factors). Emphasis is placed on those materials deemed to be the most relevant to our curricular needs. In addition to the publications created by Congress, those put out by the Departments of Education, Commerce and Interior comprise the largest share of our government collection. As a general rule, we receive approximately one-fifth of the publication series the federal government offers to depository libraries. The librarian who oversees documents, with occasional input from selected faculty members who may have an interest in particular publications, makes the decision on which series we receive. We also try to avoid excessive duplication of materials that are acquired by the Drake Law Library.

      Cowles Library will provide access to federal government information made available through the Federal Depository Library Program. This access will be freely available to both the Drake community and the general public with no fees, age restrictions or residency requirements. Providing access to Government Documents has implications for both the “virtual” and “physical” library. The “virtual” side requires the Library to maintain an up-to-date Web presence that points to worthwhile government publications. The “physical” side requires the Library to provide public access to those computing resources necessary to access this information.

    3. Media
      Academic departments may use their library-assigned monographic (Book) budgets to purchase media materials. Media purchased for the Cowles Library collection should meet the same criteria established for other formats (such as print) in regard to relevancy to the curriculum. Note: Media is purchased for educational rather than public presentations, and public presentation rights are not included in the purchase of such materials. All copyright restrictions will be respected. Contact the Library for information about currently accepted media formats. (See Appendix #3: “Procedures for Ordering a Book or Media.”)

    4. Serials
      The recurring expense of print periodical subscriptions represents long-term, complex fiscal, physical, and technical commitments, rather than the relatively short-term process and one-time expense of acquiring and processing a book. This is true regardless of whether the subscription is in print or online format. For this reason, periodicals selection must be a carefully considered activity and is treated differently from book selection. (See “Section V: Library Collections” for the policies regarding electronic serials). Periodicals are selected and preserved for Cowles Library to enhance the library’s collection of learning resources with current materials in various subject fields. Journals/periodicals/annuals are normally acquired only through subscription; individual issues or reprints are rarely purchased. Journals which are expensive or very specialized, not indexed, are unrelated to specific courses or programs, or which for some other reason are inappropriate for an educational institution, are seldom ordered. (See Appendix 4: ” Procedures for Ordering a Journal (print and electronic) and Electronic Databases”).

      1. Policies pertaining to different types of serials subscriptions
        1. Periodicals
          Journal subscriptions that are perceived to be of lasting value will be bound for permanent storage except titles which are also available in a permanent digital format, in which case see the “Policy for removal of duplicate print and microform journal holdings if a title is owned in a permanent digital format.”

          The Library subscribes to a number of popular magazines. These provide current cultural awareness. Because few of the bound titles are available electronically, many are bound and retained to support teaching and research, particularly in the areas of history, political science, sociology, and journalism.

        2. Electronic/Online Journals
          Cowles Library seeks access to high quality electronic journals (e-journals) in all subject areas of the Drake curriculum. Because the acquisition of any particular electronic journal is staff-intensive and involves the work of many people over a period of months, collection efforts will focus on acquiring a solid core of proven e-journals from respected publishers with non-core material acquired when it follows general collection policies. E-journal publishers vary greatly in their familiarity with electronic publishing issues and in their familiarity with needs of the scholarly and library community. Some e-journal publishers have unrealistic expectations of the prices libraries can afford. Because the Library has limited funds that can be devoted to such publishers, we will pursue other formats or delivery methods for the desired journal rather than providing access to the electronic version.

        3. Microforms
          Cowles Library does not actively collect microform except for titles of local interest (e.g., Des Moines Register, Times-Delphic). If an item is only available in microform we will consider purchase.
        4. Newspapers
          Cowles Library carries subscriptions to select newspapers to support teaching and research, to provide sources of national and international news, and to provide general intellectual and cultural awareness for the Drake community. Another consideration is whether or not the title is available via the internet and/or in one or more of the full-text electronic databases to which the library subscribes. There is no specific attempt to collect, using University funds, the hometown newspapers of the student body, although gifts will be considered (see Section VII: 2. Gifts).
        5. Monographic series
          Monographic series may be acquired as individual titles, or by establishing a continuation (standing) order. The need to purchase all volumes in the series is the primary requirement for establishing a continuation order.

    5. Electronic Collections
      1. Purpose, Priorities and Goals
        Digital materials should meet the same subject, chronological, geographical, language and other guidelines as outlined in the library’s print collection policies (see Section IV: Selection Factors); and possess the same standards of excellence, comprehensiveness and authority that the library expects from all of its acquisitions. Priority will be given to those digital materials that offer significant added value in supporting teaching and research over similar materials in traditional formats, that offer significant opportunities for cost containment, and whose license terms are reflective of the University’s academic values. Measures of added value might include: additional content, greater functionality and accessibility, improved resource sharing ability, improved linkages with other information tools, ease of archiving, and enabling more efficient use of limited faculty and student time and resources. The Library recognizes that different disciplines utilize different formats and different types of information in different ways, and that no one solution is appropriate for every area of study. Within this framework, it is the Library’s objective to collect scholarly digital materials in order to provide broad access to relevant scholarly information, including articles, monographs and databases, and to provide seamless cross-linkages between all elements of the digital library.

      2. Broad Categories
        Digital library materials currently collected by Cowles Library consist of four broad categories:

        1. Purchased or licensed material such as electronic journals or databases
          These are generally acquired from a commercial source, a government entity, a non-profit organization, a professional society, or an institution engaged in furthering scholarly research. In many cases this material is not “physically owned” by the library in the same sense that a printed book or journal may be owned, but instead the library has acquired specific rights to the material on behalf of the library’s clientele.
        2. Digitized material
          Material that has been reformatted (digitized) by Cowles Library or the University from non-copyrighted print or analog sources, or has been reformatted from copyrighted sources with appropriate permission. In some cases the library may also serve as a repository for material digitized by other libraries, universities, institutions, or individuals. Typically, this material consists of resources from special collections that have been selected for digitization in order to make them more widely available (see Section VI. F. Special Collections), or deteriorating materials that have been reformatted for preservation reasons. As the use of digital material in higher education expands, the library will increasingly digitize materials on a programmatic basis in order to support the mission of the University and Cowles Library.

        3. Links and pointers
          Links and pointers to Internet resources of significant scholarly value that are added to the library’s catalogs, databases, and networked resources as appropriate.
        4. Open Access (OA) content
          A growing amount of scholarship is being made available through OA sources, such as the Directory of Open Access Journals and OAIster, and Cowles Library is committed to supporting such growth. Where appropriate and technically feasible, the Library provides access to and discovery methods for OA content.
      3. Selection Factors
        The selection factors listed in Section IV also apply to the acquisition of electronic resources. In addition, several other factors are evaluated. The following list is not meant to be all-inclusive, but is merely meant to guide the selector.

        1. Content
          Is the content intellectually significant? Is the content relevant to Drake University’s curriculum? Is it relevant to the selecting levels identified in the Library Conspectus? Measures of intellectual significance include authority, uniqueness, timeliness, breadth or depth, and demand.
        2. Is the format appropriate?
          Is the format appropriate to achieve the underlying rationale for the acquisition of the resource? Print may be the appropriate format for a unique item with a low rate of expected usage, while high-use general undergraduate-level information resources, distance education resources or frequently used reference material may be more appropriately acquired in a “networkable” digital format. In a similar vein, special collections material with wide potential interest might benefit from digitization to increase its utility and to make it available to a wider audience. An analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of a particular format, along with considerations of audience, intended use of the material, archival and access issues, and overall costs are all factors to be considered in determining which format would be most appropriate for the library collection.

        3. Practical Issues
          Does the library have the necessary overhead resources (equipment, staff, space, etc.) to support the resource? Do library users have the necessary resources to utilize the content (computers, players, plug-ins, etc.)? Does the license or contract for the resource meet library, university, and state requirements? Is the vendor reliable, is the format stable, and can we utilize the resource (linking, archiving, etc.) in the ways our users need? Does the digital product adhere to the best prudent practices of current library collection management (including, but not limited to, appropriate retrieval software, a well-designed interface, appropriate format and linking options, a properly reliable delivery mechanism, authentication and security designs that meet library needs, a library-friendly approach to fair use and copyright, quality statistical reporting, appropriate technical support, assurances of rights to permanent access, and appropriate licensing terms)?

        4. Strategic Considerations
          Is the resource compatible with library/university information technology plans? Is the product compatible with the library’s overall digital library vision and the library’s current infrastructure in terms of its discovery, access, organization, and technical components? Is the product design and delivery consistent with the best practices of digital libraries? Advantages of digital format must be demonstrably greater than the equivalent print purchase. That is, there should be a coherent rationale for the acquisition of the resource. (See Appendix 11.)

        5. Accessibility
          That is, the ease with which the title/database can be readily accessed, both physically (computer hardware/software, internet connections, etc.), and bibliographically (ease of location of pertinent information on the library’s catalog/web page, etc.).
        6. Integration
          Ease of ability to integrate into existing Library services.
        7. Cost
          Ideally, electronic content should cost less than its print equivalent unless there is added value (such as full-text, internet links, etc.). Practically, costs should not be significantly greater unless the added value is substantial. (See Appendix 11, section H.)
        8. Archiving
          If a print subscription to the title is not also carried, archiving is a key issue to consider. Does the publisher archive all years to which we are paying for access? Will we continue to have access to those years if/when we discontinue the subscription? What forms will that access take? (See Appendix 11, section D.)

    6. Special Collections
      Cowles Library’s special collections consist primarily of Drake-related material. There is a collection of books by Drake alumni and Drake faculty. There is an archival set of all the dissertations that have been done at Drake, although newer ones are now only kept in the electronic format. There is also a collection of various publications by Drake agencies including: catalogs, yearbooks, staff directories, school newspapers, student magazines, commencement programs and Drake Relays programs. The Library maintains two collections of archival files that we call Drake Biography and Drake Agency. The Biography files contain articles, letters, memos, photos and the like for individuals that were/are Drake faculty, staff, administrators, alumni and trustees. The Agency files contain articles, memos, photos, flyers and the like for Drake departments, buildings, offices, events and publications. Our special collections do not contain institutional archive materials such as: personnel records, student records or financial records of the University. The Library does have a few collections of non-Drake material in Special Collections, which can be found on the Heritage page of the library website.

      The Library will identify local materials whose wider availability would aid university teaching and research, promote scholarship, enrich the arts and sciences, deepen our understanding of human culture and benefit the Drake community. Local materials are digitized both to provide wider access, and to preserve them for future generations. Digitization projects require a significant investment of local resources and are not undertaken lightly. Long-term value to the academic community, congruency with the Library and University missions and areas of interest, and significance to worldwide users of the Internet are all important considerations. Digitization projects are planned in consultation with the Drake Digital Repository (see Appendix 5: “Drake Digital Archives”).

  6. Collection Maintenance
    1. Binding
      In general, Cowles Library binds the following materials:

      • Most periodicals.
      • Some new paperback monographs and serials.
      • Some music scores.

      In general, Cowles Library does not bind:

      • Newspapers.
      • Excessively brittle materials.
      • Reference serials.
      • Materials whose content rapidly becomes out-of-date.

      Exceptions may be made, and will typically be laminated or bound in “pam” binders in-house.

    2. Conservation & Preservation
      Staff and student workers (primarily in technical services and circulation) are trained to identify conservation and preservation issues and determine the type and level of treatment needed in both new and existing circulating collections. Depending on the nature of the preservation treatment, materials are treated in-house, sent to an appropriate service vendor (e.g., a bindery), or withdrawn and replaced if possible. If a replacement is unavailable or not cost effective, the Library will provide an enclosure to prevent degradation and to keep the item complete. Special collections do not circulate and are not subject to the same assessments and treatments of circulating collections.

      Sound collection maintenance techniques (such as evaluating usage of resources, monitoring pricing trends, and tying the collection to the curriculum) will be applied to electronic materials in the same manner as print, whenever possible. However, we should remain aware that print and electronic materials may have significant differences in the area of archiving. Thus, as stated above, preference should be given to those electronic resources whose publishers demonstrate a commitment to digital archiving.

    3. Replacements
      Cowles Library will acquire replacement copies for monographs or media designated as missing, lost and paid, or unable to be repaired; AND when it is determined that the title should not be withdrawn and other copies or editions are available for purchase. Replacements will be considered on a case-by-case basis.
    4. Usage Statistics
      The Library will collect and analyze meaningful statistics on the usage of print and electronic resources, especially those commercial resources which the Library licenses. For print collections, usage will be determined by examining a combination of checkouts, renewals and in-house uses. In the case of electronic resources, a combination of full-text retrievals and abstract views will be considered (for full text resources), or abstract views alone (for Abstract & Index resources). Usage statistics will be used to inform purchasing and renewal decisions in conjunction with the Library’s overall assessment of its services and collections. Whenever possible, only COUNTER (Counting Online Usage of Networked Electronic Resources) compliant statistics will be collected. Statistics may be used to inform collecting and deselecting of electronic resources.

    5. Deselection
      Cowles Library participates in a collaborative partnership with the following libraries: Central College, Grand View University, Grinnell College and Simpson College. This partnership is called Central Iowa-Collaborative Collections Initiative. (See also the CI-CCI Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and related Acquisitions and Interlibrary Loan addenda.)

      One of the tenets of the agreement is that each Library will agree to identify and retain certain titles in its collection for preservation and sharing purposes. These titles are known as “retention list titles.”

      The first step in considering an item for potential withdrawal is to ascertain whether or not it is a “CI-CCI Retention List” title. It if is not, proceed with the criteria listed below.

      If the item being considered for withdrawal is a “CI-CCI Retention List” title, the library must carefully consider whether or not to proceed with the withdrawal process, since we have agreed to keep the item in our collection. If we still wish to proceed with the withdrawal, we will need to keep track of the item(s) and follow the discard procedure outlined in the MOU. We would then make the item(s) available to other libraries in CI-CCI for retention in one of their collections.

      In accordance with the process recommended in the ALA Standards for Libraries in Higher Education for discarding materials, Cowles Library deselects items to maintain a current, active and useful collection that reflects its goals and the curriculum. Materials should not be withdrawn due to controversial subject matter or solely because they have not been heavily used. Some subject areas call for more frequent deselection of outdated material than others, with the principal areas being in the physical sciences and social sciences.

      1. Books
        The following factors are taken into consideration when deselecting books from the collection:

        • superseded editions
        • duplicate copies
        • age and physical condition of the book
        • frequency of circulation
        • obsolescence of content
        • presence of other books on the subject matter
        • removal of a program from the curriculum
        • inclusion of titles in recognized bibliographic sources
      2. Periodicals
        Cowles Library considers deselecting periodicals if:

        • subject materials are duplicated (especially if in a digital format);
        • titles have a few scattered issues or broken files and cannot be filled in and completed;
        • or a title is in poor physical condition and can be replaced by microfilm or an electronic alternative;
        • a title has value for the current year or a few years only, back issues are usually deselected.

        No periodical still identified as a core title in its field should automatically be discarded because it is not indexed, contains controversial or unpopular opinions, or has not been heavily used.

      3. Serials
        Cowles Library withdraws serials/continuations following the same criteria stated above for monographs and periodicals. When a title has value in only the most recent edition (e.g., directories), older volumes are usually withdrawn.
      4. Media
        Cowles Library considers media for deselection if:

        • the subject matter is excluded from the Collection Development Policy;
        • it uses obsolete technology (such as phonograph albums);
        • the library lacks the necessary equipment to view or use the item;
        • it is in questionable physical condition;
        • or it is available in another format.
      5. Government Documents
        Cowles Library withdraws government publications according to the rules stated in Guidelines for the Depository Library System.
      6. Electronic Resources
        Like print resources, electronic resources can go out of date. The vendor may add new features, functionality and/or content. Librarians will periodically review electronic materials to determine their use, relevance, currency, and value to the collection. Electronic resources that are no longer supported by the vendor, are not regularly updated, have low usage levels, or no longer have relevance and value to the collection may become candidates for deselection.

        If low usage indicates possible cancellation of a database, the following issues will also be examined before a final decision is made:

        Library Liaisons will determine the following:

        • Is there continued curriculum support for the database in question?
        • Are specific assignments made using the database?
        • Is there a preferred resource over the current database?
        • Have faculty and students been trained? Is vendor training (in person or online) warranted?
        • Are Research Guides (Databases by Subject) up-to-date and accurate?
        • Has the database been sufficiently promoted and/or marketed?

        Library Technical Services staff will determine or assist with the following:

        • Are access points working correctly? (A-Z, Database List and Research Guides)
        • If additional promotion and/or marketing is warranted, are posters available for distribution to departments?
        • Are additional/updated slides (Ask Here desk, Lower Commons and Cowles banner) warranted?
  7. Special Considerations
    1. Approval Plans & Standing Orders
      Cowles Library maintains arrangements with vendors and publishers under which it automatically receives certain categories of publications in the following ways:

      1. Approval Plans
        Recognizing that the needs of the University are diverse and that the book selection expertise of individual faculty and librarians can be supplemented in some areas, the Library uses an approval plan to assure the acquisition of current materials at a reasonable price. An approval plan delivers current publications from various publishers on prescribed subjects of particular interest, with return privileges for unwanted volumes. Library liaisons work with department faculty to develop subject profiles for the approval plan. The Library employs this professional service to assist in developing and maintaining a balanced collection with appropriate coverage in all disciplines as outlined in this policy.

      2. Standing Orders
        These are volumes of sets or monographic volumes in series being published over a period of time that extends into the future and for which we want complete holdings.
    2. Gifts
      Cowles Library’s Collection Development Policy guides the selection and purchase of all materials for the library. Gifts are evaluated by the same standards as are purchased items so that the total collection maintains high quality, consistency, and relevance to the needs of the University. Gift books or journals that fill existing gaps and that support the curriculum are especially beneficial. The Library must be free to decide whether all or part of a gift should be added to the collection, discarded, exchanged or given away. Because of space limitations and the cost of cataloging, some gifts cannot be added to the collection. The following materials are generally not accepted as gifts:

      • Issues of journals that we do not subscribe to (because of the additional expense required to keep such titles current).
      • Duplicates of titles already held regardless of format, unless the donated copy is in better condition than our existing copy.
      • Textbooks.
      • Materials in poor physical condition.
      • Material with factors such as odor, age or subject matter may be eliminated from consideration.

      If a gift is not added to the collection, it may be offered to other libraries or discarded. Gifts are not returned (unless specifically requested by the donor), nor are they kept together. Gifts with restrictions imposed as to markings, shelving, etc. are usually not accepted. Rare and expensive items will be respected and treated as such. Arrangements for handling these may be negotiated between the Acquisitions Associate and the donor. Appraisals of gifts cannot be made by members of the library staff since the library is an interested party in the transaction. The donor is responsible for arranging and paying an outside appraiser if this is necessary or desired since the donor is the one who benefits from the tax deduction.

      Because of limited staff, the library usually cannot provide an itemized list of contributions, but the Acquisitions Associate will be pleased to sign a list of gift titles provided by the donor. A letter acknowledging the gift items is always sent to the donor unless the Acquisitions Associate has been asked not to do so. All Gift donors are asked to sign a release indicating that they understand and agree to the above terms.

    3. Browsing Materials
      The Browsing collection is intended to promote recreational reading among students, faculty, and staff and to enhance awareness of selected new books. The objective of the browsing collection is to provide books that will stimulate and entertain, and promote reading for the sheer joy of reading. The types of materials purchased for Browsing includes popular fiction, biographies, and other titles pertaining to topics of current interest. These types of materials are generally found on “best seller” lists such as the New York Times. Browsing titles are generally transferred to the general circulating collection at regular intervals, which may vary depending on their frequency of usage.

      See also the paragraph referring to Popular Magazine in Section V. D. 1. a.

    4. Reserve Materials/Electronic Reserve Materials
      Most of the materials on reserve are placed there at the request of a faculty member for a specific course. The professor who places the item on reserve is also responsible for setting the amount of time allowed for its use, as well as the length of time that it will remain on reserve. All reserve items are reviewed for removal at the end of each semester. Some materials are placed on reserve by the library staff and are not contingent upon any specific class. The primary reason for doing this is to provide greater control and access over frequently used reference materials. Electronic reserve course pages are established by the Reserves Manager. Articles are provided from scanned photocopies, personal book scans or PDFs. Copyright guidelines are followed strictly to conform to regulations.

    5. Theses/Dissertations
      Cowles Library collects copies of dissertations and theses produced by Drake University students. For publications prior to 2010, the Library collected and continues to maintain two copies of each dissertation, one for circulation and one as an archival copy. As of 2010, the library only preserves a digital copy as part of our institutional repository.

    6. Patron-Driven Acquisitions
      Also referred to as Demand-Driven Acquisitions, Patron-Driven Acquisitions (PDA) is a method of offering Library users a wide range of potential resources in various formats (e.g., e-books, print books, journal articles), but an item is not actually purchased until the patron requests it. By employing one or more PDA collection models, the Library makes more efficient use of its collection budget by avoiding the problem of purchasing items that never get used. Purchasing and delivering an item at the patron’s point of need ensures that the item will be used at least once.

      At this time, the Library is employing and assessing a number of PDA models. While we do not know how widely these models will be used in the development of our collections, we anticipate that some form of PDA will remain a permanent part of the Library’s collection development strategy.

  8. Library Liaison Program
    The development of the collection is a shared responsibility of the teaching faculty and the library faculty. In order to facilitate communication between the Library and the academic program areas which it supports, the Library will designate “School/Departmental Liaisons” to serve as primary Library contacts to designated areas. Each College/School (and in the case of the College of Arts & Sciences, each Department) will have one librarian assigned to it. Additionally, emerging areas, such as Interdisciplinary Studies, Diversity Studies, etc. may have a librarian assigned to them. Note: only those Colleges/Departments who have active Liaisons (primarily consisting of attending the bi-annual meetings and responding to library messages/queries) will receive a departmental funding allocation. (See “Section II. A. Budget Allocation“.) The faculty Liaison Program is the main vehicle of communication, collaboration, and cooperation between library and discipline-based faculty. Generally, the library will host a meeting of the Librarian Liaisons and the Departmental Liaisons once each fall and spring semester.

    1. Overview & Goals of Liaison Program
      • To build effective working relationships between library and discipline-based faculty, by providing a framework for increased cooperation.
      • To improve the quality and appropriateness of Cowles Library’s collections and services.
      • To foster increased use of the library and its collections within Drake’s curricular context.
      • To provide workshops on new library resources and services.
      • To provide a mechanism for incorporating information literacy directly into the curricula.
      • To promote awareness by maintaining an in-depth understanding of college/departmental programs (e.g. courses, degree programs), and by maintaining an awareness of individual faculty members instructional and research interests.
    2. Librarian Liaison Guidelines
      1. Duties of the Library Liaison
        • To serve as a channel of communication between the Departmental faculty and the Library faculty; to maintain regular and on-going contact with Departmental Library Liaisons, Chairs, and other faculty in designated areas of responsibility in order to remain current on curriculum content, teaching methods and faculty research interests.
        • To keep the Departmental faculty informed of library services, such as electronic resources, document delivery, and ILL.
        • To make the Departmental faculty aware of any gaps within our existing collection; to serve as primary resource manager for designated School or Department.
        • To develop a collection profile for each subject area, based on the level of material needed or expected for each discipline within the parameters of our curriculum.
        • To coordinate the removal (weeding) of outdated material from the collection with the Departmental Liaison.
      2. Specific responsibilities of the Library Liaison
        • Regularly initiate order requests for items in their assigned areas. This includes responding to Approval Plan “slip” orders as well as initiating “firm orders” from appropriate review sources.
        • Help set-up an appropriate approval plan in their designated areas.
        • Review new serial title requests and cancellations.
        • Identify and evaluate electronic information resources in their assigned subject areas and make recommendations to the Electronic Resources Selection Committee.
        • Responsible for maintenance of the Subject Portal(s) in their designated area(s).
        • Responsible for coordinating collection assessment issues in their designated areas with the Head, Collection Development & Management and/or the Collection Development Committee.
    3. Departmental (Discipline-Based) Liaison Guidelines
      Ultimate responsibility for collection development rests with the Library faculty. However, the Departmental Library Liaisons also carry responsibility to work with the Librarian Faculty member assigned to their discipline/school/department in order to achieve a balanced collection and to coordinate the resource development of the Library’s collections in their subject areas. Each School/Department is responsible for appointing a faculty member to serve as liaison to the library. This person must be able and willing to fulfill the duties and responsibilities outlined in this document, and to attend the bi-annual Library Liaison meetings held at the Library (schedule permitting; if the liaison is unable to attend the meeting he/she should make every effort to find a colleague to attend in his/her stead).

      1. Duties of the Departmental Liaison
        • To internally coordinate her/his department’s acquisition needs and represent them to the Library; this person is the “information conduit” between the academic department/program and the library. This person must be in regular contact with all faculty in their department/academic unit.
        • To keep the Librarian Faculty member assigned to their department informed of any new course offerings, and whatever materials may be needed for such.
        • To make the librarians aware of certain course assignments given by the department that may require extensive reference service.
        • To verify that the Library indeed has certain materials in the collection needed by their students.
        • To coordinate the annual review of the serials/journals list holdings assigned to their department with their colleagues.
        • Increasingly this is becoming more of a major responsibility of the Faculty Liaison. The Library subscribes to a number of assessment tools which makes pertinent information on online journal availability and usage more readily available. The Library seeks to work closely with the designated Liaisons to ascertain appropriate journal subscriptions and formats. This also includes coordinating the review of serials titles that are candidates for receipt in an “online only” format. This also includes, when necessary, coordinating serials/journals cancellations for their department.

      2. Specific responsibilities of the Departmental Liaison
        • Departmental Liaisons, in conjunction with their assigned Library Liaison, may be asked to help set up and review the approval plan for their department.
        • Departmental Liaisons, in conjunction with their assigned Library Liaison, may be required to review the collection in their subject area(s) for collection assessment purposes.
        • Departmental Liaisons, in conjunction with their assigned Library Liaison, will recommend information resources received electronically such as electronic database subscriptions.
        • Departmental Liaisons will coordinate database trials of particular interest with their departmental colleagues (that is, request feedback and communicate the feedback to the librarian liaison assigned to their department).
        • Departmental Liaisons, in conjunction with their assigned Library Liaison, may be asked to assist the library by reviewing and evaluating gift collections from time to time.
  9. Appendix
    1. ACRL Standards for Libraries in Higher Education
    2. LibQUAL
      Cowles Library uses LibQUAL as well as other methods to assess its effectiveness including collection and analysis of statistical measures, and consideration of “Best Practices” in similar types of academic libraries. The LibQUAL project will allow libraries to compare their service quality with other peer institutions, to develop benchmarks, to receive information about areas needing improvement and to identify best practices across institutions. By using the LibQUAL+™ instrument and initiating action based on the results of this survey, Cowles Library can be more responsive to user needs and provide services to meet user expectations.

    3. Procedures for Ordering a Book or Media
      Each School/College (and in the case of the College of Arts & Sciences, each Department) is given an allocation each year from which to place orders for books or media (check with library for currently supported video format). Any faculty member may place an order for a book or media to be added to the library collection, but should check with the Liaison of their School/College/Department to determine if a procedure is in place for submitting its orders. Individuals may also place a book or media order request from the Cowles Library web site, via e-mail, or by campus mail provided that the item meets with the “Selection Factors” listed in Section IV.

    4. Procedures for Ordering a Journal (print and electronic) and Electronic Databases
      Serial/Journal subscriptions are ongoing budgetary commitments, including committing the library to an on-average 10% inflation rate per year. Consequently, new subscriptions must be justified (i.e., unmet curricular need), and also must include the identification of funds to support the subscription. This is accomplished by identifying a title or titles of approximately similar cost to be discontinued. Since subscriptions are “assigned” to the various Departments, any individual faculty member who wishes to initiate a new subscription must coordinate this request within his/her department by first contacting his/her assigned Department Faculty Liaison. The Department Liaison will then coordinate the review of the journal title list within his/her department to ascertain if the department wishes to begin the new subscription, and, if so, which title(s) will be canceled in order to fund it.

      Each spring the Collection Development Librarian will, upon request, provide a list of serial/journal titles assigned to each College/School (and in the case of the College of Arts & Sciences, each Department). This list will be provided to either the Department Chair or the Departmental Library Liaison to review the list for potential changes in regard to changing curricular needs, etc. At this time, the Collection Development Librarian will notify the Department Chair and/or the Departmental Library Liaison of the “bottom line” figure to be achieved. Generally speaking, this will be a “break even” figure. Generally, if a subscription is added, a subscription of equal or greater cost must be discontinued.

      Either the Department Chair or the Departmental Library Liaison will notify the Collection Development Librarian of any changes to be made in the list by the end of the spring semester.
      For those years in which the library does not receive funding adequate to maintain the current level of serials expenditures (given the annual 10% inflation rate), the Collection Development Librarian will, as soon as the budget information is made available to her/him, notify the Department Chair and the Departmental Library Liaison of the need to cancel subscriptions. The serial/journal lists will be provided (according to the procedures outlined above) to accomplish this goal. If the Department does not respond (that is, provide a list of titles to discontinue within the target figure), the Library Faculty will make the decision about which titles to discontinue.

      Electronic Selection Criteria – Resources will be acquired with the intent of supporting the curriculum; that is, meeting the information and research needs of Drake students and representing value for the money. Faculty may request that a free electronic resource trial be initiated. The request should be addressed to the Librarian Liaison assigned to their College/School/Department, or by directing a request to the Collection Development Librarian or Electronic Resources Specialist. The Electronic Resources Specialist will arrange the trial and announce the trial via e-mail to the library faculty and staff. Library Liaisons will forward this information to the department(s) most closely associated with the subject content of the resource. A part of this announcement will include the encouragement of feedback to the Library committee charged with evaluating electronic resources. The trial will also be posted on the Trial Databases webpage so that anyone can demo the product and give their feedback via the Evaluation Form on the Trial Databases page. After the commencement of the trial, if the Library committee has received two or more positive responses, the Library will consider subscribing to the resource based on criteria listed in “Section V: Library Collections.” Note also that the library will consider joint purchasing through grant and Departmental funds. Purchases with joint funds will require special negotiations.

      See also “Section VI. E. Deselection.”

    5. Digital Archives
      The Cowles Library at Drake University has a digital archives that consists of two components, each serving a unique purpose. The institutional repository, or “eScholarShare@Drake“, represents the intellectual output of Drake faculty, staff, and students. The Drake Heritage Collections, a digital archive of Drake’s history, comprises selected items culled from the current Special Collections Department.

    6. Policy regarding duplication of materials held at Opperman Law Library
      Cowles Library will not duplicate materials held at the Opperman Law Library unless the material is popular legal fiction (Browsing) or non-fiction works that might involve popular court cases, the Supreme Court or some legal issues of historical interest.

    7. Policy for retention of duplicate print and microform journal holdings if a title is owned in a permanent digital format
      Preface: Many titles previously purchased by Cowles Library in print format are available electronically (through databases such as JSTOR and Project MUSE). In order to reduce duplication, save money and conserve shelf space, the following policy was developed. If Cowles Library has both print and electronic subscriptions to a journal title, the print subscription will be cancelled and the duplicate print and microform holdings removed from the shelves if the following conditions are also met:

      • The subscribed online content must be available regardless of our subscription status, also known as “perpetual access.” In other words, Cowles Library needs to own the electronic content. For example, if Cowles Library subscribes to a journal electronically in 2009, and then cancels the subscription in 2010, the 2009 content must remain accessible.
      • The online content must be equal to or greater than print content. Tables, illustrations, figures and text must be of comparable quality to the print version. If such quality is found lacking, the print version may be retained.
      • Online content must be presented in similar way as the print content. PDF files should “look like” the print version of the article. If duplicate content is only available in HTML or other formats that are not easy to read, the print version may be retained.
      • Online access should preferably be through IP or other multiple-user platforms. A single username/password to access content is not acceptable for access.
    8. Policy for removal of duplicate print and microform journal holdings if a title is owned in a permanent digital format
      If a title is identified through the “Policy for retention of duplicate print and microform journal holdings if a title is owned in a permanent digital format,” the procedure for removal is:

      • On a regular basis, the library will compile a list of print and microform holdings which are available in a permanent online format.
      • New titles identified by the library as appropriate for removal will be vetted through the appropriate library liaison before any action is taken.
      • If the library liaison and the library agree that the print copy can be removed, all duplicate holdings will be de-selected from library holdings.
      • If the permanent electronic version is current (i.e., there is no embargo), the print version will be canceled unless the library liaison can give compelling reason otherwise.
      • If the electronic version of a print title marked for removal adds online content on a regular basis (e.g., JSTOR): a) the print content will only be removed after it has been verified as available in a permanent electronic format, and b) each subsequent weeding will NOT be vetted through academic departments.

      New print issues that will one day be superseded by the electronic edition will NOT be bound.

    9. Criteria for acquiring and retaining periodicals
      To determine which periodicals will be acquired and retained, the following criteria will be taken into consideration (Ranked in order of importance):

      1. Indispensable to the support of present and proposed curricula.
      2. Indexed in standard periodical indexes.
      3. Determined by library staff as necessary for the creation of a well-balanced collection.
      4. Supports specific research in progress.
      5. Used by students and faculty for recreational and general informational reading.
      6. Other factors: Accreditation requirements, longevity of the title, availability of the title at other local libraries, availability of the title at a reasonable cost via document delivery or Interlibrary Loan. New subscriptions will be considered, funds permitting, using the “Selections Factors” listed in Section IV and, ideally, will be handled in consultation between the Departmental Library Liaison and the Librarian assigned to that subject area. (See Appendix 4: “Procedures for Ordering a Journal (print and electronic) and Electronic Databases“.)
    10. Cancellation of serial/journal
      The following are the main reasons for cancellation of a serial/journal subscription; these factors apply to online as well as print materials. (See also “Section V. Library Collections, D. Serials“):

      • Fiscal considerations if the price of a journal increases more than 15% in one year, it will be subject to review for possible cancellation. Titles will be vetted through the Departmental Liaison before a final decision is made.
      • Change in or discontinuance of the program it supports.
      • Content or format changes in the title that make it inappropriate for inclusion in the collection.
    11. Evaluation elements considered for electronic/online materials
      1. Content suitability
        • Accuracy, authoritativeness and completeness of database.
        • Potential users; usefulness for a variety of classes and/or disciplines, anticipated volume of use.
        • Subject coverage; duplication of current library resources.
        • Alternative products available that might better serve users’ needs.
        • Format alternatives.
        • Frequency of content updating.
      2. Search engine and interface
        • Ease of use for patrons and library staff.
        • Quality of retreival and search engine.
        • Frequency of updating of search engine, user interface updating and new searching features.
        • Availability and quality of documentation.
        • Treatment of graphics, formulae, and other non-standard characters.
      3. Vendor reliability
        • Vendor’s reliability, stability, and reputation for producing quality products.
        • Availability and responsiveness of technical support.
      4. Archiving and preservation
        • Access to the back files of the data after the license has expired or if product is removed from market.
      5. Technical compatibility
        • Capacity and requirements for remote access; Password vs. IP authentication (The Library will give priority consideration to those resources that can be accessed via IP authentication).
        • Requirements for Library hardware and software.
        • Network compatibility.
      6. Licensing and other legal concerns
        • Licensing terms and restriction.
        • Number of simultaneous users or unlimited usage based on FTE.
        • Remote access.
      7. Service implications
        • Ease of training potential users.
      8. Cost and budgetary constraints
        • Cost/value analysis.
        • Availability of funds.
        • Historical and potential inflation factor of the resources.
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